# FET Phase

13 October 2020
13 October 2020

## Math

Mathematics forms a fundamental part in our daily living and encourages logical reasoning and mental rigor. It is an essential subject that promotes critical thinking, mathematical problem solving, spatial thinking, skills in building logical strategy, the development of algebraic thinking creativity and effective communication skills to enhance success in the working environment and everyday life.

#### Core competencies

• Functional notation
• Graph linear, hyperbola, exponential and parabola equations
• Different types of angles, special pairs of angles, triangles, auxiliary lines, polygons and quadrilaterals
• Construct congruent line segments, parallel lines, triangles, angles, and their bisectors
• Learn about properties of equality, deductive reasoning and parallelograms
• Understand and prove triangles congruent using SSS, SAS, ASA Postulates
• The LL, LA, HA and HL Theorems in proofs
• Theorems dealing with parallel lines, perpendicular lines, triangles, transversals and midpoints
• Sum of the angles of a triangle and resulting corollaries
• Constriction of angles and perpendicular lines
• Prove that quadrilaterals are parallelograms
• Discover characteristics of rectangles, rhombuses, trapezoids and isosceles trapezoids
• Divide a segment into any number of congruent segments
• Trigonometric ratios (sine, cosine and tangent)
• Find and construct the geometric mean
• How to apply the Pythagorean Theorem to right triangles
• Simple interest, value of investment, compound interest, interest rate, compound decrease
• Straight line graphs, finding the equation of a straight line, parallel and perpendicular lines, simultaneous equations
• Laws of exponents, polynomials, binomials, equalities and inequalities
• Relations and functions, linear equations and inequalities, relations and slope, direct variation, quadratic functions and graphs, axis of symmetry and the vertex, minimum and maximum points; completing the square
• Square roots; rational, irrational, imaginary, real and complex numbers; radicals and exponents/equations; radicals within radicals
• Fractional equations and quadratics; the discriminant and nature of roots; polynomial functions f(x); synthetic substitution; the remainder and factor theorem
• Functions and graphs
• Permutations and factorial notation; probability
• Matrices
• Coordinate Geometry: distance, midpoint and gradient formulas; parallel, perpendicular and collinear lines; inclination and equation of a straight line; equation of an altitude, perpendicular bisector and median of a triangle; equation of the circle
• Number patterns and patterns in nature; rules of symmetry and inverses
• Logarithm, exponential expression; graph exponential functions
• Arithmetic and geometric sequences/series; sigma notation; infinite geometric series
• Compound interest and annuities
• Data Handling and probability; analyse a numerical data set by using measures of central tendency; box and whisker diagrams; standard deviation; cumulative frequency; ogive Draw scatter plots; correlation coefficient and equation of the least squares regression line; concepts of probability of single events; Venn diagrams
• Angle of elevation/depression; Understand the different trigonometric methods used to give direction; law of cosines and sine
• Six trigonometric ratios; reduction formulae with positive and negative angles; double/compound angle identities
• Definitions of terms used in calculus; average gradient; derivatives; principles of differentiation

## English

English in the FET Phase continues to build on the solid foundations that have been laid in the Senior Phase. The English language is a tool for thought and communication which effectively enables learners to gain knowledge, to express their feelings and ideas, to interact with others, and to manage their domain. Learners apply concepts, and deepen their understanding of the language to make better sense of the world they live in.

#### Core competencies

• Formulate four kinds of paragraphs: descriptive, expository, narrative and persuasive by using examples, facts, reasons and details
• Learn the characteristics of a good biography; definition, classification, and function of nouns; rules for forming the plural and possessives of nouns and review outlining; the principal parts of regular and irregular verbs; to conjugate a verb in all six tenses; progressive form and emphatic form, pronouns and how they function, subject-verb agreement, write a bibliography, characteristics/degrees of comparison for adjectives and adverbs; word etymologies; characteristics of biographies and autobiographies; write a chapter of your autobiography; write newspaper articles; form and purpose of business letters, social letters, newspaper articles and letter of application
• Learn and apply capitalisation rules, quotation marks, comma rules, troublesome verb pairs
• Learn to identify and form the six tenses
• Review the eight parts of speech and noun functions, kinds, functions, and voices of verbs, nouns and their functions; the seven basic sentence patterns; phrases and clauses
• Identify the simple subject, simple predicate, complete subject, and complete predicate; the function of prepositional phrases and clauses; the interjections and the four kinds of conjunctions; participles, gerunds, and infinitives; sentence patterns
• To examine the setting, plot, characters and author’s style of "The Hiding Place"
• To diagram sentences
• Practice answering essay questions
• Read and evaluate literature from the Colonial Period, Period of Independence, Founding Period, Expansion Period, National Struggle, Transition Period
• Identify and distinguish between complete sentences, sentence fragments, and run-on sentences
• Review nouns, conjunctions and prepositions, first four steps in developing a research paper
• Learn and apply the rules for subject-verb agreement; verbs (tenses, moods, kinds, functions, voices of verbs, eight functions, plural forms, possessive forms and classifications); pronouns (personal pronouns, interrogative pronouns, demonstrative pronouns, indefinite pronouns, relative pronouns); adjectives and adverbs, adjectival and adverbial phrases, and adjectival and adverbial clauses
• Learn and write examples of the four kinds of paragraphs – descriptive, narrative, expository and persuasive; plan and write an essay
• Learn about independent elements (interjections, the expletive "there," and nominative absolutes); identify verbal's (gerunds, participles, and infinitives)
• Learn about novels as a literary form and get an overview of the classic novels Ben-Hur and Hans Brinker, or, The Silver Skates
• Read and analyse the novel In His Steps
• Write a short story, plan and begin writing a research paper, make a working bibliography and preliminary outline and how to use note cards for taking notes
• Read and evaluate English literature from A.D. 449 to A.D. 1475, British literature from the Tudor Period, English prose from the Elizabethan Age, British literature (from the beginning and end of the seventeenth century, Augustan Age (1700-1745), the second half of the eighteenth century, the Romantic Period, Victorian Age (1832-1901)), The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, British prose and fiction of the Victorian Age, Silas Marner, Modern Era (1901-1945)
• Review and practice punctuation and capitalisation rules in activities relating to graduation, eight parts of speech, the eight noun functions and the seven basic sentence patterns, and diagraming, subject and verb agreement, phrases and clauses, four classifications of writing: exposition, description, narration, and persuasion
• Learn the pronunciation, spelling and definition of selected words; learn practical ways to use the dictionary and thesaurus; paraphrasing; connotation and denotation; accuracy in answering essay questions; principles of discernment for interpreting literature; methods for preparing a speech and To prepare and deliver a speech
• Practice parallelism in writing
• Identify and correct misplaced modifiers and dangling modifiers
• Survey British history of the Modern Era (1945-present)

## Afrikaans

Practice is the key to mastery
Mastering an additional language can be challenging but it presents many benefits and opportunities, Language specialist advice that daily interaction and engagement with the language is crucial. Over and above working with the professional materials, learners are encouraged to watch suitable TV programmes, read and engage in casual conversation as much as possible.

Learners continue to master Afrikaans through a variety of methods. Materials include modules, answer keys and DVDs. The DVDs contain e-books, videos, slide shows, games and other activities that equip teachers to effectively educate learners on the different concepts.

General content for Grades 10 to 12

• Learners read stories, poems, news articles and other written texts, and answer questions on what they have read
• They develop speaking skills through orals, plays and conversations
• Learners write stories, dialogues, book reviews, letters, poems, advertisements and more
• Language skills are woven through all the activities
• Learners expand their knowledge of parts of speech, punctuation, idioms, homonyms, synonyms, antonyms, abbreviations, degrees of comparison and other language conventions

These exercises cover all the requirements of the curriculum including:

• Listening and Speaking
• Reading and Viewing
• Writing and Presenting
• Language Structures and Conventions

## Life Orientation

The purpose of Life Orientation is to guide and prepare learners to respond appropriately to life’s responsibilities and opportunities. Emphasis is placed on personal, psychological, cognitive, motor, physical, moral, spiritual, cultural and socio-economic development. Learners are exposed to knowledge, skills and values to make informed and responsible decisions about subject choices, careers, additional and higher education opportunities and the world of work.

PACEs used from Grade 10-12 in conjunction with Life Orientation Manual

#### Core Competencies covered in this course is nutrition, health, life orientation and successful living.

Nutrition:
• Developing good daily habits, a balanced diet, an eating plan and knowledge of nutrition
• Discovering the seven nutrients found in food
• Understanding food units or "exchanges", junk food, food labels, fat (hidden/good/bad fats and suggestions for cutting down on fat), cholesterol, different kinds of fibre (the famous fibre experiment and suggestions for increasing fibre in your diet), whole grains, carbohydrates (high-carbohydrate foods, starches – complex carbohydrates, best sources of starch, favourite high starch vegetables, sweets – simple carbohydrates), refined sugar, protein (sources of protein, combining proteins), vitamins (fat-soluble vitamins, water-soluble vitamins, using bottled vitamins), minerals, vegetables and fruits vegetables (starchy and low-starch vegetables) and fruits (fourteen favourite fruits)
• Problems of the typical modern diet and what to do for better health
• The importance/quality of water
• The value of concentrated energy
• Your blood sugar level
• Vitamin-deficiency diseases
• Food supplements
• Keys to lifetime weight control
• Exercise
Health:
• Identify the basic rules of good health, types of diseases and pathogens and learn safety precautions
• Components of fitness, benefits and types of exercises
• Nutrients in food - functions of various vitamins, understanding a nutritional label and nutritional guidelines
• Understand various heart diseases, cancers, mental disorders
• Identify the forms of counseling (psychiatry and psychology) and treatment
• Basic First-Aid procedures (techniques for common emergency health care and cardiopulmonary resuscitation)
Life Orientation:
• Goal setting, motivation, thinking critically and Processing information and Memory
• The study environment and learning styles
• Time management
• Note-taking
• Stress management: self-care techniques, coping with anxiety
• Approaches to studying bibliography
• Understanding Human Rights (the origin of Human Rights, what does Human Rights mean to South Africa and how does Human Rights relate to the Bible)

## History

The FET Phase History curriculum takes the learner on a journey and encourages them to think about the past, which affects the present, in a disciplined way. The learners is thought to understand historical concepts, including historical sources and evidence which creates an appreciation of the past and the forces that shaped it.

#### Core competencies

• An introduction to the origins of collectivism in the revolt of Satan, the fall of man, and the construction of the tower of Babel, followed by a delineation of the classical and neo-classical utopian theorists.
• An examination of the development of Continental European, British and American socialist movements from the Seventeenth to the Twentieth Centuries.
• A description of communism in ancient Greece and Rome, and investigation into the order of the Illuminati, and a discussion about the French Revolutions of 1789, 1848, and 1871 with a special contrasting section concerning the Wesley Revivals in England and the Awakenings in America.
• A review of the philosophical and subversive precursors to modern Marxist Communism, and inquiry into the lives of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, and an in depth analysis of the theory of Marxism.
• A history of the 1905 and 1917 Russian Communist Revolutions, the 1912 Chinese Nationalist Revolution, the 1948 communist takeover of China, the circumstances leading up to those events and the men who made them happen.
• An explanation of the precursors to modern fascism, an account of the fascist movements in Italy, Spain, Portugal, France, and Argentina, and a consideration of Nazism in the German Third Reich.
• An introduction to history: the definition of history, tasks of historians, tools of history, and the Christian view of history.
• A study of the Ancient Near East: earliest civilizations, Mesopotamia, Egypt, and Palestine.
• A study of Ancient Greece: the Persian wars, Golden Age, and Hellenistic Age.
• A study of the Romans: the Republic, the Empire, and Roman culture.
• A study of the rise of Christian Europe: the Germanic barbarians, the Byzantine Empire, and Islam.
• A study of feudal Europe: the franks and Charlemagne, and the feudal system.
• A study of the high Middle Ages: economic achievements, the crusades, and medieval culture and politics.
• A study of the Renaissance: problems in the Roman church, the rise of individualism, and the achievements and participants of the Renaissance.
• A study of Reformation: Martin Luther and the German Reformation, Zwingli and Calvin of the Swiss Reformation, and Henry VIII and the English Reformation.
• A study of the New Science: the achievements of science from the Renaissance through the Reformation.
• A study of the Age of Absolutism: wars of that period, results of the conflicts, and the significance of the reign of Louis XIV
• A study of the Enlightenment: Descartes, John Locke, Sir Isaac Newton, Voltaire, Rousseau, Montesquieu, and Diderot, and the characteristics of the enlightened despots and their reigns.
• A study of the French Revolution and Napoleon.
• A study of the Industrial Revolution.
• A study of the Romantic movement, Congress of Vienna, and the European Revolutions.
• A study of Nationalism, Democracy, and imperialism, 1848-1914.
• A study of the First World War and the peace settlement.
• A study of the United States between two world wars, the rise of Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany, and the failure of international peace movements.
• A study of the Second World War and the search for peace.
• A study of the Contemporary World.

## Life Sciences

Learners begin to understand, broaden existing knowledge, or discovering new things through the Science curriculum. Life Sciences involve the scientific study of living things and organisms from molecular level to their interactions with one another and their environments. Learners will develop their knowledge of key biological concepts, processes, systems and theories and have the ability to critically evaluate and debate scientific issues and processes.

#### Core competencies

• The chemistry of life (basic structure of proteins and enzymes, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids and vitamins); inorganic compounds (water; minerals; fertilizers); cell theory; cell structure (plant and animal cells); osmosis)
• Cell division (mitosis - the phases; differences in plants and animals); cancer)
• Plant tissues (meristematic; permanent; epidermal; conducting tissues); plant organs (leaves); support and transport systems in stems and roots (includes transpiration)
• Environmental studies (biosphere; biomes; ecosystems; abiotic factors; biotic factors and energy flow through ecosystems (food chains, food webs, food pyramids)
• Diversity, Change and Continuity (biodiversity, classification schemes; history of life on Earth
• Animal tissues (epithelial; connective; muscle; nerve), life processes and support systems in animals and humans (hydrostatic skeleton; exoskeleton; endoskeleton); medical biotechnology
• Transport systems in mammals (humans) - circulatory system, lymphatic system, blood disorders, diseases of the heart and circulatory system
• Biodiversity and classification of micro-organisms (micro-organisms: viruses; bacteria; Protista; fungi immunity)
• Biodiversity of plants and reproduction in plants (plant diversity; bryophytes, pteridophytes; gymnosperms; angiosperms)
• Biodiversity of animals (relationship between body plan and grouping of animals in phyla (Porifera; Cnidara; Platyhelminthes; Nematoda; Annelida; Arthropoda; Echinodermata; Mollusca; Chordata)
• Life processes in plants and animals (photosynthesis and respiration)
• Population ecology (size, fluctuations and regulations, interactions in the environment, social organisation, community)
• Human impact on the environment (atmosphere and climate change)
• Animal and human nutrition and gaseous exchange (nutrition in mammals: herbivores, carnivores and omnivores; structure of the digestive system and accessory organs; digestion process; problems with digestion; cellular respiration; breathing and gaseous exchange in humans; diseases and abnormalities)
• Excretion in humans
• Life at the molecular, cellular and tissue level: DNA and Meiosis
• Genetics and inheritance (transmission of hereditary characteristics, inheritance and variation, sex chromosomes, gene mutations, biotechnology and genetic engineering, Mitochondrial DNA)
• Life processes: Human (diversity of reproductive strategies; ovipary, ovovivipary; vivipary; amniotic egg; precocial and altricial development and parental care; male and female reproductive systems; gametogenesis; menstrual cycle and role of hormones; embryonic development; gestation; the birth process)
• Life Processes: Responding to the environment (the human nervous system: peripheral nervous system, nerve tissue, central nervous system, reflex arc and reflex action, disorders of the human nervous system sense organs and receptors: eye and ear; human endocrine system; homeostasis in humans)
• Life processes in plants: responding to the environment (plant hormones, defence mechanisms

## Physical Science

Physical Science promotes knowledge and skills in scientific inquiry and problem solving; the construction and application of scientific and technological knowledge; an understanding of the nature of science and its relationships to technology, society and the environment. Physical Sciences prepares learners for future learning, specialist learning, employment, citizenship, holistic development, socio-economic development, and environmental management.

#### Core competencies

• Matter and materials (material(s) composition, mixtures: heterogeneous and homogeneous; pure substances: elements and compounds; names and formulae of substances; metals, metalloids and non-metals; electrical conductors, semi-conductors and insulators; hermal conductors and insulators; magnetic and nonmagnetic materials)
• States of matter and the kinetic molecular theory
• The atom (models of the atom; atomic mass and diameter; structure of the atom: protons, neutrons, electrons; isotope; electron configuration
• Periodic table (the position of the elements in the periodic table related to their electronic arrangements, similarities in chemical properties among elements in Groups 1, 2, 17 and 18)
• Chemical bonding (covalent bonding, ionic bonding and metallic bonding Waves, sound and light (transverse pulses on a string or spring; transverse waves; longitudinal waves; sound; electromagnetic radiation; waves, legends and folklores)
• Chemical change (separation of particles in physical change and chemical change; conservation of atoms and mass; law of constant composition; balanced chemical equations)
• Electricity and magnetism (magnetic field of permanent magnets; poles of permanent magnets, attraction and repulsion, magnetic field lines; earth’s magnetic field, compass; electrostatics, electric circuits)
• Quantitative aspects of chemical change
• Mechanics (vectors and scalars; motion in one dimension)
• Instantaneous speed and velocity and the equations of motion
• Energy (gravitational potential energy, kinetic energy, mechanical energy, conservation of mechanical energy - in the absence of dissipative forces)
• The hydrosphere (its composition and interaction with other global systems)
• Vectors in two dimensions (resultant of perpendicular vectors; resolution of a vector into its horizontal and vertical components)
• Newton's Laws (different kinds of forces: weight, normal force, frictional force, applied (push, pull), tension (strings or cables); force diagrams, free body diagrams; Newton’s first, second and third laws; Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation)
• Atomic combinations: molecular structure
• Intermolecular forces (intermolecular and interatomic forces (chemical bonds); physical state and density explained in terms of these forces; particle kinetic energy and temperature; the chemistry of water (macroscopic properties of the three phases of water related to their sub-microscopic structure)
• Waves, sound and light (geometrical optics; 2D and 3D wavefronts)
• Ideal gases and thermal properties (motion of particles; kinetic theory of gases; ideal gas law; temperature and heating and pressure)
• Quantitative aspects of chemical change (molar volume of gases; concentration of solutions; more complex Stoichiometric calculations)
• Electricity and magnetism (Coulomb’s Law; electric field; magnetic field associated with current carrying wires; Faraday’s Law)
• Electric circuits (Ohm’s Law; power; energy)
• Energy and chemical change (energy changes in reactions related to bond energy changes; exothermic and endothermic reactions; activation energy
• Chemical change: type of reaction (acid-base; redox reactions; oxidation number of atoms in molecules to explain their relative "richness" in electrons
• The lithosphere (mining and mineral processing)
• Momentum and impulse (momentum; Newton’s second law expressed in terms of momentum; conservation of momentum and elastic and inelastic collisions; impulse)
• Vertical projectile motion in one dimension
• Organic molecules (organic molecular structures - functional groups, saturated and unsaturated structures, isomers; IUPAC naming and formulae; structure physical property relationships; applications of organic chemistry; substitution, addition and elimination; plastics and polymers)
• Work, energy and power
• Doppler effect (with light, sound and ultrasound)
• Rate and extent of reaction (rates of reaction and factors affecting rate (nature of reacting substances, concentration [pressure for gases], temperature and presence of a catalyst); measuring rates of reaction; mechanism of reaction and of catalysis)
• Chemical equilibrium (factors affecting equilibrium, application of equilibrium principles)
• Acids and Bases
• Electricity and magnetism (internal resistance and series and parallel networks; electrical machines (generators, motors); alternating current)
• Optical phenomena and properties of materials (photoelectric effect; emission and absorption spectra)
• Electrochemical reactions (electrolytic cells and galvanic cells; relation of current and potential to rate and equilibrium; understanding of the processes and redox reactions taking place in cells; standard electrode potentials; oxidation numbers and application of oxidation numbers)
• Chemistry industry

Business Studies provides the learner with essential business knowledge, skills and principles to productively and profitably conduct business in changing business environments.

#### Core competencies

• The business environment
• The market and macro business environment
• Socio-economic issues and social responsibility
• Forms of ownership
• Creative thinking, problem solving and business opportunities
• Contracts, information, business plans and conflict management
• Self-management and team performance
• The micro-environment
• The market environment
• The macro-environment
• Sole proprietorship
• Partnership
• Close corporation
• Benefits and challenges of a company as a form of ownership
• Impact of contemporary socio-economic issues on business operation and productivity
• Entrepreneurial qualities and success factors
• Transformation of a business plan into an action plan
• Setting up or starting a business
• Professionalism and ethics
• Stress and crisis management
• Team dynamics
• Conflict management and the human resource function
• The marketing and production functions